肯尼迪就职演说成功之谜ag游戏官网

作者:世界历史    发布时间:2020-03-27 06:57    浏览::

肯尼迪就职演说成功之谜

1961年1月20日,约翰·肯尼迪就任美国总统,他的就职演说50年后

听起来仍然掷地有声。那篇演说到底成功在哪儿?BBC的一位语言

专家Dr。 Max Atkinson日前撰文剖析肯尼迪就职演说的成功密码,我

试着翻译出来,供爱好演讲艺术的朋友们探讨!

The poetic "ask not" quotation is among the speech's most memorable lines。

那几行诗歌般的“不要问”是演讲史上最值得回味的典范之一。

President John F Kennedy would have been delighted to know that

his inaugural address is still remembered and admired 50 years later。

如果知道他的就职演说50年之后还被人记住和崇拜的话,约翰

肯尼迪总统一定会很高兴。

Like other great communicators —— including Winston Churchill before him and

Ronald Reagan and Barack Obama since then —— he was someone who took

word——craft very seriously indeed。

正如其他伟大的沟通家——包括之前的丘吉尔和里根还有之后的

奥巴马,肯尼迪总统对文字艺术非常重视。

Recipe for Success

1。 Contrasts 对比

2。 Three——part lists 三句式排比

3。 Contrasts combined with lists 对比与排比相结合

4。 Alliteration 押前韵

5。 Bold imagery大胆意象

6。 Audience analysis 听众分析

He had delegated his aide Ted Sorensen to read all the previous presidential

inaugurals, with the additional brief of trying to crack the code that had made

Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg address such a hit。

他请他的助手泰德·索伦森研读之前所有的总统就职演说,还特别

嘱咐后者找到林肯发表的葛底斯堡演说如此出名的原因。

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Fifty years on, the debate about whether he or Sorensen played the

greater part in composing the speech matters less than the fact that

it was a model example of how to make the most of the main rhetorical

techniques and figures of speech that have been at the heart of all great

speaking for more than 2,000 years。 Most important among these are:

50年之后,到底是肯尼迪还是泰德真正起草了那篇就职演说

已经不重要了,重要的是那篇演说成了一个成功运用修辞手法

和比喻的经典。这些2000年来造就了所有伟大演说的手法包括:

Contrasts: "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you

can do for your country"

对比“不要问你的国家能为你做什么,到要问你能为国家做

什么”

Three——part lists: "Where the strong are just, and the weak secure

and the peace preserved"

三句式排比“强国秉持公正,弱国不受威胁,和平得以维系”

Combinations of contrasts and lists (by contrasting a third item

with the first two): "Not because the communists are doing it,

not because we seek their votes, but because it is right"

对比与排比相结合(三句中的最后一句和前两句意义

相反):“不是因为共产主义者们正在这样做,不是因为我

们看重他们的选票,而是因为这样做是对的。”

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If the rhetorical structure of sentences is one set of building blocks

in the language of public speaking, another involves simple "poetic"

devices such as:

如果说修辞手法就像用演讲中一种“建筑材料”的话,一些

简单的“诗化”的手法就是“装饰材料”。

Alliteration: "Let us go forth to lead the land we love"

押前韵(译者注:靠近的两个单词的第一个单词相同,

比如例句中的“land”和“love”,都是“l”打头):“让我们

一起来领导我们热爱的这篇土地”

Imagery: "The torch has been passed to a new generation

of Americans"

意象:“火炬已经传给了新一代的美国人”

In general, the more use of these a speaker makes, the more

applause they will get and the more likely it is that they will be recognised

as a brilliant orator。

总之,一位演讲者越多的运用以上这些手法,他获得的掌声就

越多,他也越会被认为是一个出色的演讲者。

But great communicators differ as to which of these techniques they use most。

但是沟通大师们青睐的修辞手法因人而异。

Presidents Reagan and Obama, for example, stand out as masters of

anecdote and story——telling, which didn't feature at all in JFK's inaugural。

Mr Obama also favours three——part lists, of which there were 29 in his

10——minute election victory speech in Chicago。

比如说,里根和奥巴马非常会讲故事,而肯尼迪在就职时就没有。

奥巴马更偏好三句式的排比,他在芝加哥发表过的一个十分钟

演讲中就曾用过29处排比。